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Glossary of Terms

Antivirus Software

Computer programs that attempt to identify, thwart and eliminate computer viruses and other malicious software (malware).*

Blogs (a combination of web and log)

A website where entries are written in chronological order and commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. “Blog” can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. Many blogs allow readers to leave comments in an interactive format.*

Chat Rooms

A way of communicating by sending text messages to people in the same chat room in real-time.*

Copyright

Laws that give the person who created an original work the right to be credited for that work and to determine who may adapt it to other forms (like making a movie based on a book), who may perform the work, and who may be paid as a result of the work.*

Cyberbully

An individual or group that uses information and communication involving electronic technologies to deliberately and repeatedly harass or threaten an individual or group.

Cyberbullying

Willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, and other electronic devices.

  • willful: the actions are deliberate, not accidental
  • repeated: there is a pattern of behavior, not just one isolated incident
  • harm: the target feels hurt or humiliated
  • computer, cell phones, and other electronic devices: this is what makes it cyberbullying and not bullying ††

Cyberspace

A virtual space that is synonymous to the Internet and World Wide Web that allows the joining or networking of computers around the globe.*

Drive Scrubber

Software that can permanently erase computer content by eliminating all existing data and erasing all remnants of deleted data, while keeping existing files and operating system intact. It can also be used to clean and restore drives that have been infected or damaged by spyware or viruses.

Emoticons (a combination of emotions and icons)

A symbol or combination of symbols used to convey emotions in written or message form. For example, :(, QQ, 😉 or Λ.*

Evidence Eraser

Software that can be easily downloaded from the Internet and is sometimes free. The software completely removes all traces of Internet activity by quickly removing browser history, cache files, cookies and application logs

Fair Use

A policy that allows limited use of copyrighted material without requiring permission from the author, such as when using information from a book in a research project. The author must be acknowledged, for instance in a bibliography.*

Filter Settings

Email settings that can be customized to filter email messages that appear to be “junk mail.” Suspected junk mail can be placed in a junk mail folder or permanently deleted before it is downloaded into a folder.

Filtering Software

Software, also known as content-control software, designed to control what content a reader is permitted access, especially when it is used to restrict material delivered over the Web. Commonly, this software is used by parents or educators who wish to limit what sites their children or students may view from home or school computers.*

Grooming

The process a predator uses to build a relationship with a potential victim, with the intent of eventually abusing the victim. The process begins by getting information that can be use to foster feelings of trust, mutual benefit or fear.

Identity Theft

A catch-all term for crimes involving illegal use of another individual’s identity. The most common form of identity theft is credit card fraud.*

IM

An abbreviation for Instant Messaging, which is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers, cell phones or other electronic devices that are connected over a network such as the Internet.*

IM Lingo

Slang coined and disseminated by Internet users. Such terms typically originated to save keystrokes and many people use the same abbreviations in text and instant messaging.*

Instant Messaging (IM)

A form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. The text is conveyed via computers, cell phones or other electronic devices that are connected over a network such as the Internet.*

Internet Washer

Software, like Evidence Erasers, that can be easily downloaded from the Internet and is sometimes free. It can permanently delete traces of online activities.

Mashup

Recombining different texts, graphics, audio, or video files or animations to create new work.†

Media Literacy

The critical thinking and media literacy skills needed to function in the 21st-Century media culture. This includes the ability to access, understand, analyze and evaluate the images, words and sounds that make up mass-media culture.†

Netiquette

Etiquette for the Internet. How to properly behave online.†

Peer-to-Peer Networking

Peer-to-peer or P2P software allows Internet users to share files on their computers with other people on the Internet. These files can contain videos, music, pictures, documents and software. Videos, music, and software are mostly copyrighted materials, so it is illegal to share, copy or use them without the permission of the copyright owner. In its original version, these materials will include the word “copyright” or a © symbol.

Personal Information

Information that is added to online profiles or included in email, IM or chat room discussions that tells others who you are (e.g. your name, age, city, school, and the names of friends and family members). Although many users limit the amount of personal information they add to profiles, website content or text messages, a skilled predator can use any personal information to begin the grooming process.

Podcast

An audio blog or more simply, an audio recording that is digitized and can be downloaded to an iPod, computer or MP3 player. To record a podcast, a digital recorder, editing software and a hosting site (such as blogger.com) are needed.

Privacy Settings

An option many social networking sites offer to make a social networking site private so only those who are added to a “friends lists” can access the page; however, these settings can be circumvented or “hacked.”

Profile

Personal information added to a social networking website or chat room. Users can disclose as much or as little information about themselves as they want. A profile can allow others to find an individual based on the personal information included (e.g., name, gender, age, email address, hobbies and interests, music, photos and friend lists). On social networking sites, users are able to customize their profiles by decorating their space with pictures, background music, graphics, fonts and links. This allows many users to show off their technical sophistication.**

Sexting

Sending nude or semi-nude photos or videos over a cell phone.  The production, distribution and/or possession of nude or semi-nude photos or videos of anyone under the age of 18 are considered child pornography.  Child pornography is a federal offense, punishable by law and can require the lifelong requirement of registering as a sex offender.*

Spyware

Software that is installed on a computer to intercept or take partial control of a computer, without the user’s knowledge or consent. Spyware programs can collect your personal information and interfere with your ability to control your computer in other ways, such as installing additional software and redirecting your Web browser.*

Webcam

Small cameras (usually, though not always, video cameras) whose images can be accessed using the Web, instant messaging or a PC video conferencing application. These cameras are often attached to a computer monitor but can also be embedded in the monitor and not easily identifiable.*

*Source: Wikipedia
**Magid, L. and Collier, A. MySpace Unraveled: A Parent’s Guide to Teen Social Networking. Peachpit Press, Berkeley, 2007.
† Ullman, Ellen. An A-to-Z Guide to the WWW. Cable in the Classroom. July/August 2008. www.ciconline.org/.
†† Hinduja, S., Patchin, J.S. (2009).  Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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Attorney General's Office & Legal Services Division

The Attorney General’s Office, headed by Attorney General Tim Fox, and the Legal Services Division function as the lawyers for the State of Montana. The attorneys in the Office have expertise in a wide range of legal topics and handle a broad range of legal cases involving the State of Montana and its people.

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Children’s Justice Bureau

The Children’s Justice Bureau is an agency-wide initiative at the Montana Department of Justice dedicated to IMPROVING how we respond to child victims, DEVELOPING state-of-the-art approaches by keeping up with the newest research and, most importantly, HELPING child victims recover and move on with their lives.

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Forensic Science Division & State Crime Lab

The mission of the Montana Forensic Science Division is to use operationally efficient and financially responsible practices as the laboratory provides accurate, objective, and timely forensic analyses to the criminal justice community in order to maximize value to the citizens of Montana.

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Missing Persons Clearinghouse

The Missing Children Act of 1985 established a Montana Missing Persons Clearinghouse within the Department of Justice. In March 2008, the department implemented a searchable online database that, for the first time, is updated in real time and includes any photos provided by law enforcement.

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Office of Victim Services

The goal of the Office of Victim Services is to provide tools and information to help crime victims recover from their experience and provide them with a range of services available. The criminal justice system can be confusing and intimidating for victims. To assist them as they go through the justice system, the Office of Victim Service is available to answer any questions they may have.

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Central Services Division

The Montana Department of Justice’s Central Services Division provides financial and human resources support for the department. We make sure that everything works for the people Working for Justice. If you’re interested in a rewarding career helping protect the rights and safety of all Montanans, we invite you to join our team of over 800 dedicated employees working across the state.

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Justice Information Technology Services Division

Our Justice Information Technology Services Division (JITSD) provides vital Information Technology (IT) infrastructure upon which Montanans and lojitsdcal and state law enforcement agencies rely for timely, accurate information. JITSD manages the IT systems, services, and interfaces to support nearly 800 DOJ employees, 325 statewide county motor vehicle system users, and over 3,000 Criminal Justice Information Network (CJIN) users across the state.

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Division of Criminal Investigation

The Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) at the Montana Department of Justice is involved in many aspects of Montana law enforcement and is integral to the Department dciof Justice’s mission of promoting public safety.

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Montana Highway Patrol

Montana is rich in natural beauty and history. From Glacier Park in the west to Makoshika Park in the east, the men and women of the Montana Highway Patrol are working hard to make your travels safe and enjoyable. The Highway Patrol’s core values are “Service, Integrity and Respect.” These values are reflected in our commitment to public safety through diligent and fair enforcement of our traffic codes.

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Montana Law Enforcement Academy

The Montana Law Enforcement Academy is the premier law enforcement and public safety educational and training institution for state, county, city and tribal officers throughout the state. The Academy offers entry-level programs referred to as Basic Programs and advanced training through an array of Professional Development Programs.

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Public Safety Officer Standards & Training

The Council was formed in 2007 under 2-15-2029, MCA as an independent Quasi-judicial board. And as allowed by statute the Council adopted Administrative Rules in order to implement the provisions of Title 44, chapter 4, part 4, MCA. Per 44-4-403, MCA the Council is required to set employment and training standards for all Public Safety Officers as defined in 44-4-401, MCA and in addition the Council shall provide for the certification or recertification of public safety officers and for the suspension or revocation of certification of public safety officers.

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Gambling Control Division

Through the Gambling Control Division, the Department of Justice regulates all forms of gambling in Montana, except for the Montana Lottery and horse racing. The legislature has charged the division with maintaining a uniform regulatory climate that is fair and free of corrupt influences. The division is also responsible for collecting gambling revenue for state and local governments.

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Motor Vehicle Division

The mission of the Motor Vehicle Division (MVD) is to identify and promote efficient, cost-effective programs that benefit the interests, safety, and well-being of Montana citizens through licensing, registering, and regulating the motoring activities of the public. The MVD continuously strives for excellence in customer service. Streamlining the way we do business has allowed us to improve our efficiency and make our services more convenient for our customers.

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Natural Resource Damage Program

The Natural Resource Damage Program (NRDP) was created in 1990 to prepare the state’s lawsuit against the Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) for injuries to the natural resources in the Upper Clark Fork River Basin (UCFRB). Decades of mining and mineral processing operations in and around Butte and Anaconda released substantial quantities of hazardous substances into the Upper Clark Fork River Basin between Butte and Milltown. These hazardous substances extensively degraded the area’s natural resources.

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Office of Consumer Protection

Enforce consumer laws designed to protect the consumer from unfair or deceptive business practices. Enforce statutes relating to telephone solicitation and telemarketing. Provide information to consumers about their basic rights under consumer laws. Assist consumers by distributing consumer education materials including scam and consumer alerts. Investigate false, misleading, or deceptive trade practices.

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Human Trafficking

The Montana Department of Justice has a continued commitment to victims of human trafficking. In partnership with federal authorities, our agency plays a key role in the investigation, enforcement, and prosecution of crimes related to human trafficking in Montana. This form of modern day slavery does happen here in Big Sky Country.

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Prescription Drug Abuse Awareness Program

Montana’s deadliest drugs aren’t made in secret labs and they don’t always come from dealers on the corner. They’re in our own medicine cabinets. Each year, prescription drug abuse contributes to the deaths of more than 300 Montanans — making prescription drug abuse 15 times more deadly than meth, heroin and cocaine combined. Our kids report the third-highest rate of prescription drug abuse in the country and more than half of them say prescription drugs are easier to get than street drugs.

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Safe in Your Space

When it comes to embracing new technology, kids have rapidly outpaced their parents and teachers. By their early school years, many children are already more comfortable on the Internet than their parents. But just because children are smart enough to know how to navigate the Internet, doesn’t mean they have the experience to make good decisions about some of the possibilities they may face online.

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Montana Sexual or Violent Offender Registry

Created by the Montana Department of Justice in 1989, the Sexual or Violent Offender Registry is a valuable resource for Montanans to protect their families against sexual or violent offenders.

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Montana 24/7 Sobriety Program

Drinking and driving has been a chronic – and deadly — problem on Montana’s roadways for decades. In 2008, Montana was ranked as the deadliest state in the nation when it came to per capita DUI-related traffic fatalities.

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Work for Justice

Everyday at The Montana Department of Justice, our employees are dedicated to ensuring the well-being and rights of the people of our great state. We’re passionate about what we do because it’s more than a job or a career. It’s about who we are as people. If this sounds like you, your unique experiences, knowledge, and values may be just what the Montana Department of Justice is looking for and needs. In return we can offer a culture that promotes fairness and growth opportunities.

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